Verdi – Il Trovatore (La Scala 1930)

Music composed by Giuseppe Verdi 1813-1901). Libretto by Salvadore Cammarano after El trovador by Antonio GarcÌa GutiÈrrez.

First Performance: 19 January 1853, Teatro Apollo, Rome

Principal Characters:
Count di Luna, a young nobleman of Aragon Baritone
Leonora, a lady-in-waiting to the Princess of Aragon Soprano
Azucena, a gypsy Mezzo-Soprano
Manrico, an officer in the army of Prince Urgel, and the supposed son of Azucena Tenor
Ferrando, a captain in the Count’s army Bass
Ines, Leonora’s confidante Soprano
Ruiz, a soldier in Manrico’s service Tenor
An Old Gypsy Bass
A Messenger Tenor

Setting: Biscay and Aragon, 1409


Act I

Scene 1:

The guard room in the castle of Luna (The Palace of Aljaferia, Zaragoza, Spain). Fernando, the
captain of the guards, orders the guards to keep watch while Count Luna wanders restlessly
beneath the windows of Leonora, lady-in-waiting to the Princess, whom he loves. Luna’s heart is
torn with jealousy against his fortunate rival, the troubadour Manrico. In order to keep the guards
awake, Fernando narrates the history of the count to the guard. (Fernando: “Once upon a time a
father of two sons lived happily.”) It appears that a Gypsy of dreadful aspect had once exercised
her magic arts upon the little brother of the count, making the child weak and ill, and for this had
been burnt alive as a witch. Dying, she had commanded her daughter Azucena to avenge her,
which vengeance had been partially accomplished by the carrying off of the younger son.
Although no news had been heard of him, the father refused to believe in his son’s death, and
dying, commanded his son, Count Luna, to seek for the Gypsy.

Scene 2:

Garden in the palace of the princess. Leonora confesses her love for Manrico to her confidante,
Inez. (“The story of love.”) When they have gone, Count Luna hears the voice of his rival.
(Manrico, behind the scenes: “Alone and forsaken am I.”) Leonora in the darkness mistakes the
count for her lover, when Manrico himself enters the garden, and she rushes to his arms. The
count recognises Manrico as his enemy, who has been condemned to death, and compels him to
fight. Leonora tries to intervene but cannot stop them from fighting. Manrico could have killed
the count but, as he explains later to his mother, he mysteriously restrains himself, and escapes.

Act II

Scene 1:

Camp of the gypsies. The gypsies sing the famous “Anvil Chorus”. Manrico at the bedside of his
mother, Azucena (Chorus: “See the clouds in heaven’s vault.”), the daughter of the Gypsy burnt
by the count. She is old, but still nurses her vengeance. (Aria: “Flames rise to heaven.”) The
gypsies break up camp while Azucena confesses to Manrico that after stealing him she had
intended to burn the count’s little son, but had thrown her own child into the flames instead.
Manrico realises that he is not the son of Azucena, but loves her as if she were indeed his mother,
as she has always been faithful and loving to him. A messenger arrives and reports that Leonora,
who believes Manrico dead, is about to take the veil. Manrico rushes away to prevent her from
following out this purpose.

Scene 2: In front of the convent. Luna and his attendants intend to abduct Leonora. (Aria: “Her
enlightening smile.”) Leonora and the nuns appear in procession, but Manrico prevents Luna
from carrying out his plans and instead, joins Leonora and proposes matrimony.


Scene 1:

Luna’s camp. (Chorus: “In the midst of conflict.”) Fernando brings in the captured Azucena. She
is recognised by Luna and sentenced to be burnt.

Scene 2:

Chamber in the castle, which is besieged by Manrico. Leonora and Manrico live only for each
other. (Aria, Manrico: “Yes, I am yours forever.”) Ruiz, Manrico’s comrade, reports that Azucena
is to be burned at the stake. Manrico flies to her aid. (Stretta: “Of the funeral pyre.”) Leonora

Act IV

Scene 1:

Before the dungeon keep. Leonora attempts to free Manrico, who has been captured by Luna.
(Miserere of the prisoners and aria of Manrico in the turret: “Born on rosette wings.”) Leonora
begs Luna for mercy and offers herself in place of her lover. She promises to give herself to the
count, but intends to take poison before the marriage.

Scene 2:

In the dungeon. Manrico and Azucena are awaiting their execution. Manrico attempts to soothe
Azucena, whose mind wanders. (Duet: “Home to our mountains.”) At last the gypsy slumbers.
Leonora comes to Manrico and tells him that he is saved, begs him to escape. When he discovers
she cannot accompany him, he refuses to leave his prison. He believes Leonora has betrayed him
until he realizes that she has taken poison to remain true to him. As she dies in agony in
Manrico’s arms she confesses that she prefers to die with him than to marry another. The count
enters to find Leonora dead on his rival’s arms and orders Manrico to be led to execution.
Azucena arises from her couch and when Luna, dragging her to a window, shows her the dying
Manrico, she cries in triumph: “He was your brother. Now my mother really is avenged!” and
falls dead at his feet. The opera ends with the count screaming in despair.

[Synopsis Source: Wikipedia]

Click here for the complete libretto.

image_description=View of Zaragoza and the Ebro [Source: Wikipedia]
first_audio_name=Giuseppe Verdi: Il Trovatore
product_title=Giuseppe Verdi: Il Trovatore
product_by=Aureliano Pertile (Manrico), Maria Carena (Leonora), Apollo Granforte (Il Conte di Luna), Irene Minghini-Cattaneo (Azucena), Bruno Carmassi (Ferrando), Orchestra e Coro del Teatro alla Scala di Milano, Carlo Sabajno (cond.)
Recorded 1930.
product_id=Above: View of Zaragoza and the Ebro [Source: Wikipedia]