D’Oustrac’s Sirènes is also valuable because it demonstrates different approaches to the art of song for voice and piano. Berlioz’s Les Nuits d’été op 7, to poems by Théophile Gautier, initially completed in 1841, was exactly contemporary with the works of Schumann’s Liederjahre. Later, Berlioz would expand the accompaniment for orchestra, effectively creating a new genre, orchestral art song, which would be developed later in the century by composers like Mahler and Hugo Wolf. Nonetheless, even in the original form for voice and piano, these songs are highly individual, quite distinct from the songs of Schumann and Mendelssohn. “I only wish people to know that [these works] exist”, wrote Berlioz, “ that they are not shoddy music . . . and that one must be a consummate musician and singer and pianist to give a faithful rendering of these little compositions, that they have nothing to do with the form and style of Schubert’s songs”.
These mélodies of Berlioz are characterized by elegance and restraint. In “Villanelle”, for example, the repeating patterns in the piano part might evoke Schubert, but there’s an effervescent gaiety in them that is matched by graceful flow of the vocal line. In “Le spectre de la rose”, the more languid pace allows the voice to curve sensuously. Berlioz clearly understood the carnal undertones in Gautier’s poetry. The piano part is gentle, but persistent, like an embrace. When D’Oustrac’s tone deepens with the phrase “Ô toi qui de ma mort fus cause”, one can almost sense the perfume rising from the petals of the doomed rose. Although Les Nuits d’été is not a song cycle in the strictest sense of the term, recurring themes of love, and death and perpetual change give it a coherence which is particularly clear when it is performed with the intimate focus that a single singer and pianist can achieve. The three songs, “Sur les lagunes : Lamento”, “Absence” and “Au cimetière: Clair de lune”, form a unit, sombre with the stillness of the tomb, which is then broken by “L’île inconnue” where the ebullient high spirits of “Villanelle” return. Les Nuits d’été begins with promise of Spring and new life, and ends with adventure. “La voile enfle son aile, La brise va souffler.”, D’Oustrac breathing buoyancy into the word “souffler”. Though Heine inspired Mendelssohn and Schumann with dreams of the East, Gautier and Berlioz are tapping into an even deeper vein in the French aesthetic : ideas of freedom, change and new frontiers in exotic settings. D’Oustrac and Jourdan extend Les Nuits d’été by following it with Berlioz’s La mort d’Ophélie, from Tristia op 18, a setting of a ballade by Ernest Legouvé, who, like Berlioz himself, adapted Shakespeare for French theatre. Ophélie, who dies for love, floats upon a torrent, depicted in the rippling piano part. “Mais cette étrange mélodie passa rapide comme un son”. Though the voice imitates a lament, this is not so much a song of mourning but a transformation through music. The stream carries “la pauvre insensée, Laissant à peine commencée Sa mélodieuse chanson.”
This recording is titled Sirènes, tying Berlioz’s songs together with Richard Wagner’s Wesendonck Lieder, both inspired, in part, by women who awoke strong emotions. Sirens, who attract but aren’t necessarily positive, though they generated great art. With full orchestration, the Wesendonck Lieder showcase Wagnerian flamboyance. But, as with Les Nuits d’été , voice and piano versions concentrate focus on a more intimate scale. Even more pertinently, this highlights Wagner’s place in the context of the Lieder of his time, and in relation to Schumann and Franz Liszt. “Der Engel” is gentle, and the dramatic declamation of “Stehe Still !” more human scale. D’Oustrac and Jourdan are particularly impressive in “Im Treibhaus”, the sensitivity of their expression reflecting the intense inwardness that makes Lieder as powerful a genre as opera.
One of the most iconic siren figures of 19th century Romanticism was the Loreley. This recording begins with one of the most beautiful Loreley songs of all, Liszts’s “Die Loreley” S273/2, a setting of Heine’s poem. D’Oustrac’s silvery timbre illuminates the song, accentuating its mystery. She and Jourdan include another other Liszt setting of Heine, “Im Rhein im schönen Strome”, S272/3 and four settings of Goethe, of which “Über allen Gipfeln ist Ruh” S306/2 works particularly well with D’Oustrac’s lucid style.
image_description=Harmonia Mundi HMM 902621 [CD]
product_by=StÈphanie d’Oustrac, mezzo-soprano; Pascal Jourdan, piano.
product_id=Harmonia Mundi HMM 902621 [CD]